Is the standard of consumer goods in China far behind the developed countries People’s network, Hain-sql server 2000 个人版

Is the standard of consumer goods in China far behind the developed countries? — people’s network Hainan windows — people’s network mapping: Cai Huawei quietly, the pace of upgrading national consumption accelerated, people’s daily consumption is increasingly focused on quality, safety and details. In contrast, the process of upgrading domestic consumer goods is lagging behind, and some consumers join the "sea panning family". The standard is the base line of the quality. Some people say that the slow upgrading of consumer goods production is the disaster of standard, because the standard of China is low compared with the international standard. Is the standard of consumer goods in China far behind the developed countries? Where is our gap? Safety technical indicators of the overall level of Chinese standard is not low than 3816 Chinese and foreign consumer goods, and there are 3000 international requirements "masks referring to the European EN149, American NIOSH standard to choose a water purifier to buy American NSF certification, the air purifier was selected after the U.S. CADR certification……" Beijing’s mother Ms. Feng has its own set of standards to buy things, the standard the necessities of life, as well. The most trusted part of her is the EU standard. For the Chinese standard, Ms. Feng feels that the domestic standards are too loose and not strict enough in some aspects. What is the true level of China’s standards? 80% – the conversion rate of international standards (that is, the proportion of international standards adopted by national standards, industry standards and other domestic standards) is basically over 80%. The standards set by the international standardization organization are the basis of international trade and the entrance ticket of the products to participate in international competition. At present, the conversion rate of China’s main consumer goods industry in household appliances, lighting, electrical appliances, textiles, clothing, furniture, toys, footwear, paper and washing products has all been over 80%, and some industries are even higher. 79% – the consistency of safety technical indicators was 79%. In 2014, the National Standard Committee launched the standard comparison action of consumer product safety at home and abroad. Among the first 12 comparable industries, 3000 indicators or other 3816 indicators can be consistent with international technical regulations and standards. The proportion is 79%. In particular, 2299 items are strict with international and foreign countries, 728 are consistent with international and foreign countries, 529 are wider than international and foreign countries, and 260 are different from international and foreign countries. 71% of the indicators are strict or consistent with the European Union’s directive and coordination standards. 74% of the indicators are strict or relevant to the relevant laws and regulations in the United States. 90% of the indicators are strictly consistent with the relevant laws, regulations and standards in Japan and Canada. "The comparison results show that the overall standard of consumer goods safety in China is not low compared with that of foreign countries." Dai Hong, the two director of the industrial standard of the national standard committee, said that the Chinese standard is even stricter than the international standard in terms of the requirements of the electric wall of the water storage type electric water heater, the safety requirements for the liquid heater of the electric pressure cooker, the soya bean milk machine, and the hygienic requirements of the paper products. The level of China’s standards can also be seen from the depth of China’s participation in international standard revision. The National Standards Commission Director Tian Shihong introduced, at present in the textile and clothing, household appliances, fireworks, footwear, watches and other areas of China to undertake the international organization for standardization, the International Electrotechnical Commission of two international organizations under the 10 technical institutions to the president and the vice president or the Secretariat, the Secretariat of the united. "In these 10 institutions, we all participate and even take the lead in the formulation of international standards." Tian Shi Hong said, in the home service robot and other emerging technologies in the field, toys and other hotspot, Chinese has developed to promote the work of relevant international standards. In the field of chemical safety, foreign standards start from the safety elements and strive to maximize the coverage. China’s standards have long been confined to the industry. Why do some consumers have the impression that "foreign standards are more stringent"? "The gap between China and foreign standards is mainly reflected in the chemical safety, and is more backward, and this is precisely the area of concern for consumers." Dai Hong said. Mr. Gao and his wife are recently choosing a child safety seat for the baby to be born, and the couple preferred a foreign brand. "In addition to the safety of physical properties, I am more concerned about whether the raw materials, such as plastic, fabric and other materials in the seat contain toxic substances." Mr. Gao said that chemical substances are not seen, touched but harmful, and need to be paid more attention. In June this year, the European Chemicals Bureau released the fifteenth SVHC list (list of substances need attention), so far the EU REACH regulations ("on chemicals registration, evaluation, authorization and restriction") the cumulative release of the list of 169 chemicals. According to the REACH regulation, if there is any substance in the list of SVHC candidates, and the content of the substance is more than 0.1%, it has the obligation to inform consumers. Taking child safety seats as an example, China’s national standard has only limited requirements for 8 kinds of mobile elements (antimony, arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury and selenium), while Europe has established a cross industry chemical control standard. It can be said that the chemical hazards involved in China’s consumer goods standards are not only small and lack the general requirements of the whole industry chain. Although standards limit the requirements for some chemicals, but because of lack of basic research and injury cases, they can only follow the regulatory changes in developed countries and regions. Dai Hong said that China’s standard is only for chemical safety requirements in the field of products, and lacks general requirements similar to foreign laws and regulations covering all fields and industrial chains. The difference between the origin of the gap between China and the developed countries in Europe and the United States in the standardization concept. On the one hand, the developed countries in Europe and the United States pay attention to the safety factors, make the top level general regulations in the cross industry field, and emphasize the control of the source. For example, the European Union’s REACH regulations, ROHS directives, etc., all take safety elements as clues, involving the industrial chain and related products before and after, and strive to maximize the coverage of safety requirements. "But China has long established standards for the service of industry management, product as the clue, limited in the industry to formulate safety standards. Although the safety requirements for specific products are comprehensive and systematic, the application scope of standards is narrow, which is prone to overlap and overlap. Dai Hong said. On the other hand, the developed countries in Europe and America attach importance to group standards and enterprise standards. The standard of American NIOSH masks recommended by consumers is the group standard. And before the introduction of the standardized reform program last year, the industry standards do not have legal status in our country. Even if the enterprise’s own standard of making and internal use, it is necessary for the government department to carry on the record and even review the record. "The national standard is actually only a threshold, in order to adapt to the market competition, the pursuit of a better level of the standard level of the enterprise is often higher." Dai Hong said. Let’s not allow the standard to be short. In 2020, the conformance of consumer goods and international standards in key areas reached over 95%, and consumption upgrading must be followed up. The "consumer product standard and quality improvement plan" (2016 to 2020) has been released recently. It is clear that by 2020, the overall quality of consumer goods should be significantly improved, and the conformance of consumer goods in key areas to international standards should be over 95%. "The standard is dynamic, and the comparison will be accelerated." The head of the National Standard Committee said that the comparison of the first batch of Chinese and foreign consumer product safety technology standards is concentrated in 12 fields, children’s articles, toys, children’s shoes, children’s wear, children’s cars, clothing and textiles, household appliances, jewelry, furniture, paper products, plugs, coatings and so on. According to the promotion plan, the comparison work will gradually normalize. On the one hand, we should set up the standard comparison and reporting system of consumer products. On the other hand, we need to strengthen the establishment of data standards at home and abroad. In addition to the comparison of key technical indicators, the comparison work will be extended to the comparison test of the test methods. The speed of transformation of important international standards will be accelerated. "We will explore experience and set up benchmarks through building a batch of standardized demonstration areas of consumer products, in order to promote our consumer product standards to integrate with international standards and advanced foreign standards faster, and satisfy everyone’s needs for higher quality consumer goods." Tian Shihong said. Standard structural optimization is also in sync. The reporter learned that the standardized reform program issued last year gave the group standard legal identity. In the future, our country will encourage relevant organizations, such as associations, associations and industrial associations, to coordinate relevant market players and jointly formulate standards that meet the needs of market and innovation, so that they can be selected voluntarily by the market. In addition, there is no administrative license for group standards, and it is issued by social organizations and industrial technology alliances independently. The China toy and Baby Products Association released the group standard of child safety seats in June this year, which is stricter than the national standard in three aspects, and has increased the limit requirements for pH value, formaldehyde, o-benzene two formic acid, flame retardants and other chemical elements. More valuable, the group’s standard was recognized by 15 companies, who issued a declaration to voluntarily implement the standard. In terms of enterprise standards, according to the reform plan, the government will gradually cancel the government’s record management for the enterprise product standards, implement the self declaration, publicity and supervision system of enterprise product and service standard, and declare the open standard as the record of completion. "Through these measures, we hope to increase the effective supply of standards and build a more mature Chinese standard system." Tian Shihong said. (commissioning editor Chen Haiyan and Jiang Chengliu)

中国消费品标准真的远远落后于发达国家吗?–人民网海南视窗–人民网   制图:蔡华伟   悄然之间,国民消费升级的步伐加速,人们日常消费越来越注重品质、安全、细节。相比之下,国产消费品升级的进程有些滞后,一些消费者加入“海淘族”。   标准是质量的基准线。有人说,消费品生产升级缓慢都是标准惹的祸,因为中国标准与国际标准相比水平偏低。中国消费品标准真的远远落后于发达国家吗?咱们的差距在哪儿?   中国标准总体水平不低   比对中外3816项消费品安全技术指标,有3000项与国际国外要求一致   “口罩要参照欧洲EN149、美国NIOSH标准来选,净水器要买美国NSF认证的,空气净化器得选经过美国CADR认证的……”北京的准妈妈冯女士有一套自己的买东西准则,对各大生活用品的各大标准了如指掌、如数家珍。而最让她信赖的当属欧盟标准,对于中国标准,冯女士表示感觉国内标准在一些方面太宽松了、不够严,“还是有些不放心。”   中国标准的真实水平如何?   80%――国际标准的转化率(即国际标准被国家标准、行业标准等国内标准采纳的比例)基本超过80%。国际标准化组织制定的标准是国际贸易的基础,也是产品参与国际竞争的入场券。目前,我国在家用电器、照明电器、纺织品、服装、家具、玩具、鞋类产品、纸质品、洗涤用品等主要消费品行业转化率均已超过80%,有些行业甚至更高一些。   79%――安全技术指标一致性达79%。国家标准委2014年启动了消费品安全国内外标准比对行动,在首批比较的12个行业3816项指标中,有3000项左右技术指标能够与国际技术法规和标准要求保持一致性,比重为79%。   具体而言,有2299项严于国际国外,728项与国际国外一致,529项宽于国际国外,260项与国际国外存在差异。71%的指标严于或与欧盟相关指令与协调标准一致;74%的指标严于或与美国相关法律法规与标准一致;90%的指标严于或与日本、加拿大的相关法律法规与标准一致。   “对比结果显示,我国消费品安全标准与国外相比总体水平并不低。”国家标准委工业标准二部主任戴红说,在储水式电热水器的防电墙要求、电压力锅、豆浆机等液态加热器的安全要求、纸质品的卫生要求等方面,中国标准甚至严于国际标准。   中国标准的水平还可从中国参与国际标准修制订的深度看出。   国家标准委主任田世宏介绍,目前在纺织服装、家用电器、烟花爆竹、制鞋、钟表等领域,我国承担了国际标准化组织、国际电工委员会两大国际组织下属10个技术机构的主席、副主席或秘书处、联合秘书处工作。   “在这10个机构中,我们都实质性地参与甚至领头承担国际标准的制定工作。”田世宏说,在家庭服务机器人等新兴技术领域、玩具等热点安全领域,中国也在推进相关国际标准的研制工作。   差距在化学安全领域   国外标准从安全要素出发,力求覆盖范围最大化,中国标准长期以来局限在行业内部   为何一些消费者会形成“国外标准更严格”的印象呢?   “我国与国外标准的差距主要体现在化学安全方面,且落后较多,而这恰恰是消费者颇为关注的领域。”戴红说。   高先生和妻子最近正在为即将出生的宝宝挑选儿童安全座椅,夫妻俩首选国外的牌子。“除了物理性能上的安全,我更关心座椅的塑料、面料等原材料是否含有有毒物质。”高先生说,化学物质的侵害看不见、摸不着但危害大,需要格外注意。   今年6月,欧洲化学品管理局发布了第15批SVHC清单(需要高度关注的物质清单),至此欧盟REACH法规(《关于化学品注册、评估、许可和限制法案》)累计发布的清单中共有169种化学物质。根据REACH法规,如果物品中含有任何一种SVHC候选清单中的物质,且该物质的含量超过0.1%,则有告知消费者的义务。   以儿童安全座椅为例,我国国家标准仅针对8种可迁移元素(锑、砷、钡、镉、铬、铅、汞、硒)做出了限量要求,而欧洲则建立起了跨行业的化学品管控标准。可以说,我国消费品标准中涉及的化学危害指标不仅少且缺乏全产业链的通用要求。“尽管标准对部分化学物质进行了限量要求,但由于缺乏基础研究和伤害案例,仅能被动跟随发达国家和地区的法规变化。”戴红说,我国标准仅针对产品领域进行化学安全要求,缺乏类似国外法律法规覆盖跨领域、全产业链的通用要求。   究其根本,差距源自我国与欧美发达国家在标准化理念上的差异。   一方面,欧美发达国家注重从安全要素出发,制定跨行业领域的顶层通用法规,强调源头控制。如欧盟REACH法规、ROHS指令等,均是以安全要素为线索,涉及前后产业链和相关产品,力求安全要求覆盖范围最大化。   “而我国长期以来制定标准更多是为了服务于行业管理,以产品为线索,局限在行业内部制定安全标准。虽然围绕具体某种产品的安全要求比较全面、系统,但标准适用范围窄,既容易出现标准的交叉重复,又容易出现标准覆盖不到的空白区域。”戴红说。   另一方面,欧美发达国家重视团体标准、企业标准,消费者所推崇的美国NIOSH口罩标准就是团体标准。而在去年标准化改革方案出台前,行业标准在我国尚不具备法律地位。即使是企业自己制定、内部使用的企业标准,也须到政府部门履行备案甚至审查性备案。   “国标其实只是个进入门槛,为适应市场竞争,追求更好水平的企业标准水平往往反而更高。”戴红说。   不让标准有短板   2020年,重点领域消费品与国际标准一致性程度达到95%以上   消费升级,标准必须迎头赶上。近日发布的《消费品标准和质量提升规划(2016―2020年)》明确提出,到2020年,消费品整体质量要得到明显提升,重点领域消费品与国际标准一致性程度达到95%以上。   “标准是动态变化的,比对工作将加快推进。”国家标准委有关负责人介绍说,首批中外消费品安全技术标准的比对集中在儿童用品(玩具、童鞋、童装、童车)、服装纺织、家用电器、首饰、家具、纸制品、插头、涂料等12个领域。根据《提升规划》,比对工作将逐步常态化,一方面要建立起消费品标准比对与报告制度,另一方面,要加强国内外标准比对数据资源的建立。除了关键技术指标的对比,比对工作也将拓展至试验方法的比对验证。   重要国际标准转化速度将加快。“我们将通过建设一批消费品的标准化示范区,探索经验、树立标杆,以期推动我国消费品标准更快地与国际标准和国外先进标准接轨,满足大家对更高品质消费品的需求。”田世宏说。   标准的结构优化也在同步推进。记者了解到,去年出台的标准化改革方案,赋予了团体标准合法身份。今后,我国将鼓励具备相应能力的学会、协会、联合会等社会组织和产业技术联盟协调相关市场主体共同制定满足市场和创新需要的标准,供市场自愿选用。此外,还对团体标准不设行政许可,由社会组织和产业技术联盟自主制定发布。   中国玩具和婴童用品协会就于今年6月发布儿童安全座椅的团体标准,其在三个方面都严于国家标准,并增加了对pH值、甲醛、邻苯二甲酸酯、阻燃剂等化学元素的限量要求。更为可贵的是,这一团体标准得到了15家企业的认同,他们发布声明自愿执行此标准。   在企业标准方面,根据改革方案,将逐步取消政府对企业产品标准的备案管理,推行企业产品和服务标准自我声明公开和监督制度,企业自我声明公开标准的视同完成备案。“希望通过这些举措,增加标准的有效供给,构建更成熟的中国标准体系。”田世宏说。 (责编:陈海燕、蒋成柳)相关的主题文章: